Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3940 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Organization:- An organization is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish a common goal or set of goals. Faysal Bank Limited:- Introduction of Faysal Bank Limited:- Faysal Bank Limited was incorporated in Pakistan on October 3, 1994, as a public limited company under the Companies Ordinance, 1984. On January 1, 2002, Al Faysal Investment Bank Limited, another group entity in Pakistan, merged into Faysal Bank Limited which resulted in a larger, stronger and much more versatile institution. Mission:- Mission or Purpose is a precise description of what an organization does. It is a definition of why the organization exists currently. Each member of an organization should be able to verbally express this mission. A mission statement focuses on the how of your business. Faysal Bank Mission:- Achieve leadership in providing financial services in chosen markets through innovation. Values:- A value is a belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is really meaningful to the company. Faysal Bank Values:- Our daily code of conduct is exemplified by eight core values: * Threshold values values at the heart of our brand. * Differentiator values values that set our brand apart. Threshold Values:- * Integrity- Our Integrity: Our Identity * Team Work- Our Team Work: Our Asset * Respect- Our Respect: Our Duty * Professionalism- Our Professionalism: Our Competence Differentiate Values:- * Passion- Our Passion: Our Worth * Responsiveness- Our Responsiveness: Our Distinguisher * Innovation- Our Innovation: Our Strength * Compassion- Our Compassion: Our Gift Objectives:- Objectives give the business a clearly defined target. An objective is something you want to achieve. Faysal Bank Objectives:- * Prime focus to earn profit by providing values to its customers. * To provide superior services to its customers. * To provide assistance in the development of the commerce and trade industr y. * Focus on blending skills and experience towards creating an enabling environment. * Core focus is to inculcate a culture of collaboration intended to deliver world class customer service. * To promote and boost up business sector inside the country. * To provide the employment opportunities in the country. * To provide loan and advances to help out in self employment schemes * To earn profit for the bank itself and for its stakeholders. * To create maximum economic value for shareholders through constant relationship focuses on financial services. Stakeholders:- Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interest in an organizations ability to deliver intended results and maintain the viability of its products and services. In the development of a firms mission and vision is a good place to start, but first, of course, you must identify critical stakeholders, get a handle on their short- and long-term interests, calculate their potential influ ence on your strategy, and take into consideration how the firms strategy might affect the stakeholders (beneficially or adversely). Stakeholders can be internal as well as external Internal Stakeholders:- Internal stake holders are individual or groups inside a business or an organization. External Stakeholders:- External stake holders are individuals or groups outside the business who are interested in the decisions an organization makes. Overall stakeholders include owners or shareholders, managers, employees, customers, government, suppliers, communities and Investors. Some stakeholders may have more than one interest in a business. An employee might also be a stakeholder. Managers are employees of the business, a customer might be a member of a local community but yet they can be stakeholders. Stakeholders in a business will usually benefit from their involvement with the organization. Employees will earn money which they can spend on goods and services. Customer s will consume the goods and services supplied by the business and the government will collect tax from the organization. P2:- Evaluate the extent to which an organization achieves the objectives of three stakeholders. Interest Objectives of Stake holders:- Different Stake holders have diverse objective and they have different affects on an organization or business. According to Michael Novak following are seven points that should be kept in mind according to business ethics when developing relations with stakeholders. * Customer satisfaction by providing goods and services of real value. * Reasonable return on the funds entrusted to the business by its investors. * Create new wealth * New job opportunities * Promote invention and creativity * One of the most important is to diverse public interest into different sectors of life. Following are the needs of the stakeholders that the organization caters to for their complete satisfaction. * Shareholde rs want regular, secure and high returns. * Managers want responsibility, high rewards and a lack of interference in their actions. * Employees want high earnings, an interesting job and secure employment. * Customers want quality products at low prices and a good service * Suppliers want secure, regular and profitable orders. * Government wants to achieve a large number of goals including growth in the economy and low inflation. * The local community wants thriving local businesses which do not cause problems. P3:- Explain the responsibilities of an organization and strategies employed to meet them. Responsible Behaviour of an Organization:- Social Responsibility:- Agency theory devised by Milton Friedman says that the social responsibility of an organization is to generate the possible profit for its shareholders with fair competition, no fraud, etc. It should be understood that the managers of a firm are no more than agents working on behalf of the o wners. But at the other end, the stakeholder theory emphasizes a broader set of social responsibilities for business (Mullins, 2005). Ecological Responsibility:- Ecology and the increasing destruction of ecosystems and natural resources have a widespread concern from the public, the governments and inter-governmental agencies. Business organizations in the whole world are required to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for their new operations or expansion of the existing ones. EIA is a detailed study of the likely environmental consequences of the new development, together with plans to avoid causing damage or to repair damage that cannot be avoided. The EIA takes into account whether resources used are renewable or non-renewable. Allaby elaborates that the cost of obeying regulations may inhibit innovation and apart from the economic effect, this may delay or even prevent the substitution of new products and processes for old ones. Business Ethics:- Busine ss ethics has a broad spectrum, because any action by a firm or one of its employees can be done ethically or unethically (Mullins, 2005). Thus the behaviour of a business towards its customers, competitors, suppliers, employees, the environment, local communities and other stakeholders will certainly reflect the organizational cultures in terms of ethics adopted or neglected. Sternberg includes two tests of the decency (e.g. refraining from stealing, cheating) and distributive justice (i.e. ensuring that rewards are proportional to contributions made). Therefore, an organization is said to be ethical if it satisfies three tests of: * long-term wealth growth of its owners; * common decency * distributive justice If it fails in any of these three tests, the organization is deemed unethical. Management Responsibilities:- The stakeholder view suggests that management is responsible not only to the organizations owners (Shareholders), but also has responsibilities to: * Employees * Customers * Suppliers * Competitors * The Local Community * The general public (and government) Public Relations and Corporate Image:- Corporate image describes the public attitude towards a company, or the image of the company in the mind of the general public and, perhaps more specifically, in the minds of potential customers. It is possible to promote a desired corporate image through a combination of public relations, advertising and the experiences and attitudes build up by customers over the year. (For example, the favorable corporate image of Marks and Spencer grew up over many years, without the need for substantial PR or advertising.) P4:- Explain how economic systems attempt to allocate and make effective use of resources. Economic System:- Economic systems comprises of a long list, some of which are as under:- * Capitalism * Socialism * Mixed Economy Capitalism (Free Enterprise):- Capitalism is an economic syst em characterized by a free market in which means of production and distribution (the land, factories, technology, transport system etc) are privately owned referred to as the capitalist class. The people who sell their ability to work in return for a wage or salary are referred to as the working class. The working class is paid to produce goods and services which are then sold for a profit. The profit is gained by the capitalist class. The capitalist class lives off the profits they obtain from exploiting the working class while reinvesting some of their profits for further accumulation of wealth. Socialism:- Socialism is an economic system in which the means production and distribution of goods are owned by the community collectively usually through the government. Socialism is characterized by: * Production for use rather than profit * Equality of individual wealth * Absence of competitive economic activity * Government determination of investment, prices, and pr oduction levels Mixed Economy:- Mixed Economy is an economic system which allows the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprises. It is an economy that reflects the elements of both capitalism and socialism. In a mixed economy, the private ownership as well as the state takes part in the means of production, distribution and other types of economic activities. Allocation of Resources in the Economic system:- In capitalism, the motive for producing goods and services is to sell them for a profit, not to satisfy peoples needs. While in socialism all rights and decision are taken under the government bodies. Everyone can get benefit from that economic system while in mixed economy both socialism and capitalism take place. P5:- Discuss the impact of Social welfare and Industrial policy. Social Welfare Policy:- Modern social welfare measures may include any of the following: the care of destitute adults; the treatment of the mentally ill; the r ehabilitation of criminals; the care of destitute, neglected, and delinquent children; the care and relief of the sick or handicapped; the care and relief of needy families; and supervisory, educational, and constructive activity, especially for the young. Industrial Policy:- Government provides the financial support and capital to the private sector by direct subsidies, tax credits, or government-run developmental banks. Industrial policy emphasizes cooperation between government, banks, private enterprise, and employees to strengthen the national economy. Impact of Social Welfare Policy on Faysal bank Ltd:- As Faysal Bank is a socially responsible corporate entity so it has been a regular contributor to the society and communities it operates in. The employees of the bank established a relief fund for Internally Displaced Persons from Swat, with the bank. The bank partnered with the Institute of Business Administration (IBA) Karachi to provide Rs. 50 million over a per iod of 3-5 years for sponsorship of one academic chair in IBAs Executive MBA program. The bank even donated 183 computers to different educational institutions with a focus on promoting education for the underprivileged. Impact of Industrial Policy on Faysal Bank Ltd:- The main impact on FBL is if the government of Pakistan increases the interest rate so the all banks will get affected by this decision. Due to more interest profit will decrease and people will be reluctant to utilize the services and facilities provided by the bank. P6:- Evaluate the impact of macroeconomic policy and its influence. Macroeconomic Policy Measures:- Macroeconomic is one of the two most general fields of economics that literally means managing economics at large. It deals with the entire economys performance, total amount of goods and services produced, decision making, structure and etc. It can be national, regional, or global economy. It includes the study of GDP, unemployment rates, a nd general behavior of prices to understand how the economy works. It also develops models for analysis of national income, inflation, savings, investment, international trade and etc. Fiscal Policy:- Measures employed by governments to stabilize the economy, specifically by adjusting the levels and allocations of taxes and government expenditures. When the economy is sluggish, the government may cut taxes, leaving taxpayers with extra cash to spend and thereby increasing levels of consumption. An increase in public-works spending may likewise pump cash into the economy, having an expansionary effect. Conversely, a decrease in government spending or an increase in taxes tends to cause the economy to contract. Fiscal policy is often used in tandem with monetary policy. Until the 1930s, fiscal policy aimed at maintaining a balanced budget; since then it has been used countercyclical, as recommended by John Maynard Keynes, to offset the cycle of expansion and contraction in the e conomy. Fiscal policy is more effective at stimulating a flagging economy than at cooling an inflationary one, partly because spending cuts and tax increases are unpopular and partly because of the work of economic stabilizers. Impact of Fiscal Policy on Faysal Bank Limited:- Due to rise in rate of taxation the selected organization has to pay extra taxes, and due to this it will cause reduction in investment because of less earnings and high taxes. The enlargement in the government expenses or payments will increase employment rate as well as the purchasing power of the people means they will spend more. This will cause rise in demand of hospital facilities and services. Monetary Policy:- Measures employed by governments to influence economic activity, specifically by manipulating the money supply and interest rates. Monetary and fiscal policy are two ways in which governments attempt to achieve or maintain high levels of employment, price stability, and economic growth . Monetary policy is directed by a nations central bank. In the U.S., monetary policy is the responsibility of the Federal Reserve System, which uses three main instruments: open-market operations, the discount rate, and reserve requirements. In the post-World War II era, economists reached a consensus that, in the long run, inflation results when the money supply grows at too rapid a rate. Impact of Monetary Policy on Faysal Bank Limited:- The supply of money will reduce, and the flow of money will be a smaller amount due to all this it will affect the business performance. Decrease in business actions will decrease buying power of people and income rate. Due to more interest profit will decrease and people will buy less services and facilities from the selected organization. M1:- Give your judgments about the organizational performance in achieving its objective and also satisfy its stakeholders. Banks Performance:- 2009 was the first year of implementation of banks five year strategy developed in 2008. The bank made considerable progress in all five pillars of strategic focus i.e. Customer Franchise, People, Risk Management, Processes and Financial Perspective. Customer Franchise:- Keeping in view the objective of being the bank of choice for customers, new initiatives were undertaken during the year. To improve customer experience, a service quality department was set up which developed a comprehensive service quality program covering customer experience measurement, process refinement and employee engagement. Islamic Banking: Barkat Islamic Banking was launched, that introduced Shariah compliant banking transactions. Alternate Delivery Channels: The Bank expanded its ATM network by adding 23 new ATMs taking the total ATM network to 116 ATMs across the nation. The bank also introduced real time Cash Deposit facility through ATMs on 13 Cash Deposit ATMs in selected cities. People:- Organizational structures across all functions were reviewed and aligned to focus on business, risks, costs and clarity of roles and responsibility keeping in view with the best practices. Similarly HR policies were reviewed and have been revised. A new performance management system was introduced. Trainings were also conducted for soft skills development of employees. Risk Management:- The Risk Management Framework was revitalized through inclusion of following functions:- * Special Asset Management Group focusing on account recovery and classified exposure management, and * Credit Administration Department engaged mainly in credit monitoring and security documentation. Processes:- The bank centralized five operational hubs into a processing centre for providing seamless services from one single location to the entire branch network. Two geographically separate centralized operation clusters have been created to behave as a backup site for each other in case of a major disaster at one location. Financial Perspective:- In line with the organizational setup, the MIS setup of the bank has also been changed from geographical to functional. During the year MIS level was graduated to the next level i.e. from business segment level to customer level. M2:- Discuss how much the organization acting responsibly under current circumstances. There are various ways and methods for an organization to consider so they can act responsible, however those various ways and methods also depend on the kind of organization you are working with. However, the organization we have selected to write upon is the banking sector. Banks are situated at at places ideal for customers and are environment friendly, as building do not pose threats to the environment. Given the nature of the bank work, which is mainly clerical or administrative, employees are not subject to occupational health hazards. However, a variety of occupational risks to health do exist in the banking sector, as in other cler ical occupations. It is the important for the employees health that adequate standards of hygiene, cleanliness and comfort are maintained in the workplace. It is difficult, to single out health risks involved to the banking sector that are not common to other clerical occupations and it is even more difficult to isolate any special problems in this area for employees of multinational banks. In the majority of cases, foreign and domestic banks are moreover governed by the same legislative standards with regard to health and safety and hygiene in workplaces, which are said to be respected by foreign banks and enforced through inspection at regular intervals. In a number of countries, particularly in Europe, enterprises of a certain size are obliged by law to set up a joint committee on safety and health to monitor the application of legal provisions, point out deficiencies and make suggestions for improvements. Many of the large banks have gone far beyond the legal prescriptions in their concern for protecting their employees health. For example, in a number of cases they have organized training sessions for employees on safety and health problems, precautionary measures in the workplace, fire prevention and other security matters. Ethical codes are rooted in a wider value system, as to what is right or wrong. Companies do have ethical responsibility and are not protected by limited liability from the consequences of their actions. A companys record and the perception of its ethics affect its reputation and ensure long term success or failure. The financial community has a history of placing moral considerations above legal or opportunistic expedients. But we are often exposed to moral dangers. Bankers role is one of stewardship based on trust. They are trusted by the people who ask them to look after their money and they have a duty to lend that money responsible. Banking is about rewards reflecting real risks and ethical considerations form an impo rtant part of their risk taking activities. The welfare of borrowing customers money, in good times and bad is of major concern in any business proposition. Bank depends on people to run their business and to reflect their ethical standards. Banks have to let their people know what is expected of them. A bank responsibility extends to Government, customers, shareholders, staff and community. In the future, as the banks face increasingly complex and conflicting issues, their resolve and commitment to ethical behaviour will be tested. D1:- Justify a choice of a new mission statement salient features. Mission Statement for Faysal Bank Limited:- Focusing on the customers loyalty by providing standard financial services, through developing and delivering innovative products and services keeping in view the stakeholders profitability. Features:- * Customers loyalty * Financial Services * Innovation * Stakeholders Profitability Customer Loyalty:- Objective of the bank is to provide valuable and superior services to customers, so for this the Bank is focusing on close and long term relationship with customers. Their prime aim is to facilitate their customers with more advanced financial services, so to make them loyal. Financial Services:- Objective of the bank is to provide assistance for an individual and business, so the bank is providing mixture of financial services to an individual and businesses for the development and promotion of individuals life and commerce. Innovation:- The focus of bank is to bring more new ideas in their services to their customers. Which will increase the market share of the bank and will led the bank serve more customers. Stakeholders Profitability:- By providing valuable services and innovation it will increase the stakeholders wealth. D2:- Recommend the broad strategies to achieve stakeholders Objective successfully. Strategies:- * Focus the business on the groups core skil ls and process technology. * Position the group in growth markets where our core skills are applicable. Environmental Technologies Division, which combines the skills in catalysts and process technology, is well positioned to serve these emerging markets. * Differentiate their strategies by using our world class technology. We will continue to invest significantly in research and development to develop new products and manufacturing processes. Technology is the key driver for most of the businesses and because of that organizations have a strong science base with technical centers located in all our major markets. * Maintain strong relationships with major customers, suppliers, government bodies and other stakeholders by investing resources on joint projects to ensure the group is well positioned for future market development. * Continue to invest in employees to ensure they are well trained, motivated and encouraged to meet the challenges of the future. * Ensure the business is run in a sustainable way by using resources efficiently. M3 D3:- What are the response of an organization towards social industrial policy and recommended solution. Social Welfare Policy:- The impact of Social Welfare Policy on Faysal Bank is sometime positive and negative. In case of providing free education and medical treatment etc the bank has to spent money which can affect their financial position. While on other hand, by providing these facilities students get motivated. The Bank provides facility of internship to fresh students to develop their practical skills. Faysal Bank provides Gratuity Fund to their employees. The Bank provides fund to IDPs, earthquake/flood affected people, in case of natural disaster in the country. Industrial Policy:- Industries are growing in this leading age so the Faysal Bank is also one of the leading Bank in the banking sector of Pakistan. The Bank provides variety of products of standardized nature which encourages the bank position to be stable in that sector. Against other competitors in the Banking sector, the Faysal Bank has provided innovative products and services to their customers and to business. Providing loans to businesses and encouraging different businesses and providing standard services by Faysal Bank is representing that the bank has given full response towards the industrial policy. Observation and Conclusion:- I observed Faysal Bank Limited a financially sound bank. Its profits are increasing year by year. Their staff is very good and sincere with the bank. According to my research Faysal Bank is not yet facing any major problems regarding Social Welfare Policy and Industrial Policy. Faysal Bank views specialization and service excellence as the cornerstone of its strategy. The people at Bank realize that innovation, creativity, reliability, customized services and their execution are the key ingredients for their future growth. They are aware that they have stepped i nto 21st century and they must meet its challenges by acquiring the highest level of technology. They will thus be accelerating their technological advances to enable them to distribute their products and services through most efficient and high technology means. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Mission, values and key objectives of Faysal Bank" essay for you Create order
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
In the mind of an individual there is a battle between inner choices and outside pressure from the society when both are in the opposite poles, a battle in which in which well being can be lost or found. In the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare, the unpropitious hero Hamlet is negatively influenced by demands and enters into a mental dilemma, as he is unable to decide whether he should follow his inner voice and kill his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murderer, or whether he should be a law abiding citizen and respect the new king and follow his policies. When individualÃ¢â¬â¢s choices conflicts with external demands, individuals will not be able to have good personal life, and chances to become indecisive, which ultimately leads to the downfall of the individualÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In my case, I also am unable to decide on a matter when both sides are equally important. I ask myself whether I should go to medicine or whether I should study engineering, and yet till now I have not been able to reach a conclusion. External force which is my extended family pulls me in the direction of medicine while my inner mind wants engineering. A thousand questions run through my mind, which makes me question whether I am the indecisive Hamlet. Hamlet couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take a decision though the ghost is repeating that Claudius is his murderer, he is unable to go to theÃ¢â¬â¢ to be or not to beÃ¢â¬â¢ stage because of the conflict of emotions. In the play, Hamlet couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill Claudius when he is praying, because he thinks whether Claudius can go to heaven as he is praying. Hamlet is not thinking irrationally, but because of huge battle of emotions he is unable to slay Ã¢â¬Å"the serpent who wears his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s crownÃ¢â¬ . As a result of stress, and indecisiveness Hamlet finally becomes a prey to the plan of Claudius. The unpleasantness of having a poor personal life and his wavering character makes him die. If he had killed Claudius before, the political situation would have been very much favourable to him, but rather than killing Ã¢â¬Å"the serpentÃ¢â¬ he allows it to kill him. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s ruined personal life; his bad relationship with former friends and his mother and hisShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet981 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare is a historic writer that is well known and wrote many plays in his lifetime. In most of his plays, if not all, he has incorporated hidden meanings and messages. The majority of his hidden meanings are controversial topics of his time period. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Hamlet, the controversial topic that is throughout the play is religion and the afterlife. Afterlife plays a big role in Hamlet and is discussed throughout the play. Multiple authors have written on the topic of afterlifeRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet745 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, Hamlet is a unique character due to his unpredictability. He is attempting to discover the truth in a way that no other character of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s has done. We find Hamlet in a state of deep melancholy due to the death of his father, as well as the very sudden and lewd marriage of his uncle and his mother. Hamlet is inspired by the player giving the speech about Hecuba witnessing the massacre of her husband, Priam. He goes off on his own, and he is bewilderedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunsatisfactory situation. In William Shakespeares Hamlet, a characters inability to overcome their weakness due to it being emphasized by their unfortunate circumstance results in their tragic downfall. This is illustrated through Hamlets over thinking, Claudiuss ambition, and Gertrudes naive persona. 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It has one of the most famous soliloquies ever to be written in theater art, Ã¢â¬Å"To be, or not to be.Ã¢â¬ At first, reading ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s writing seems difficult to understand and be interested in, but as the reader reads on and digs into the roots of the play, it truly grabs the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and makes him/her want to know more of the thoughts behind Hamlet. Thus, the story of Hamlet begins and his personality shows throughoutRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet 2214 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesMadness within: Bipolar William Shakespeare had the uncanny ability to read people then put into words how individuals reacted with one another. His most known playwright is Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ . Hamlet leads the opening of the play with grandeur; but, when his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost of comes to visit him telling of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle Claudius killed him. Hamlet schemes a plan pursuing revenge. Hamlet demonstrates depression exceptionally, in the presence of his mother and Uncle Claudius. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s character likely labeledRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet Essay751 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet Hamlet might well claim to be Shakespeares most famous play because of its language and the charm of its central character. Shakespeare wrote some thirty-eight plays. Taken individuallyRead More William Shakespeares Hamlet Essay1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet Hamlet has been praised and revered for centuries as one of William Shakespeares best known and most popular tragedies. Based on its popularity, critics alike have taken various viewpoints and theories in order to explain Hamlets actions throughout the play. The psychoanalytic point of view is one of the most famous positions taken on Hamlet. 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Nevertheless images of Gertrude , Queen of the Danish and Ophelia , daughter of royal adviser Polonius , played in the tragedy very important role . In these two images are not simply embodied many typical female character traits - as worthy , and not so . In the process of communication with these women reveal deeper characters of Hamlet and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
CRITICISM SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Catcher in the Rye has been into continuous dispute and controversy since its publication in 1951. Some critics think that Salinger s narrative of the human plight is engrossing and enlightening, yet incredibly depressing. The leading character, Holden Caulfield, serves as the basis for critical discussion due to his psychological conflict. Salinger s portrayal of Holden, which encloses incidents of dejection, nervous breakdown, impulsive spending, sexual exploration, and other wandering behavior, have all assist to the controversial nature of the novel. Yet the novel is praised by its piercing advocates, who argue that it is a critical look at the problems facing American youth during the 1950 s. The historical background of any novel is very important while studying it. The Catcher in the Rye has been written in a literary style similar to prose, which was enhanced by the teenage slang of the 1950 s. It is a widespread belief that much of Holden Caulfield s candid outlook on life reflected issues relevant to the youth, and thus the novel continues to be used as an educational resource in high schools throughout the nation. The Catcher in the Rye was J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s first step onto the literary playing field. This commencing status left Salinger, as a serious author, unique as a sort of liberated agent, not confine to one or more schools of critics, resembling many of his contemporaries were. While the young protagonist has made Salinger aShow MoreRelated salinger Essay843 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages LIFE AND PHILOSOPHY OF J.D. SALINGER J.D. Salinger is one of the most renowned writers of his time. J. D. Salinger is most known for his controversial in the Catcher in the Rye. Salinger is also known for many of his writings such as Franney and Zooey, Nine Stories, and Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters. The summer of 1930 he was voted Ã¢â¬Å"The Most Popular WriterÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Salinger is a beautifully deft, professional who gives us a chance to catch quick, half-amused, half-frightened glimpses ofRead MoreThe Catcher in the Rye Essay1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis paper proposes to delineate the characteristics of Holden Caulfield, the adolescent protagonist hero of J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Catcher in the Rye and illuminate the reasons as to why this prototype of brooding adolescence, displaying a rather uber-cool style of disaffection, disenchantment and disillusionment became an indispensable figure of interest, in literary circles as well as popular culture. The paper seeks to take issue with the wider dime nsions attached to the Ã¢â¬Ëincapacitation and debilitationÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreAnalysis of A Catcher In the Ryes Holden Caulfield: Enemy of Himself1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJerome David SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s only novel, The Catcher in the Rye, is based on the life events shaping main character, Holden Caulfield, into the troubled teen that is telling the story in 1950. The theme of the story is one of emotional disconnection felt by the alienated teenagers of this time period. The quote, Ã¢â¬Å" I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anyone there that was splendid and clear thinking and allÃ¢â¬ (Salinger 4) sets the tone that Holden cannot find a connection with anyone around him and that he is on a lonely endeavorRead MoreProtecting The Innocence By F. D. Salinger1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRigoberto Nunez S. Dusang English 3 AP 26 April 2015 Protecting the Innocence; An Overview of The Catcher in the Rye During the nineteen fifties, as the population of the United States hurdled in a whirlpool of amiss, a writer sought to conserve innocence as teenagers move into adulthood. The change from their teenage years to adulthood made them question religion, friendships, and fate. J. D. Salinger saw this as a potential pitfall for teens; therefore, he adopts a unique writing style to whichRead More J. D. Salinger Essay2481 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesJ. D. Salinger J. D. Salinger The worth of a book is to be measured by what you can carry away from it. -James Bryce* In 1945, a novel was published that would forever change the way society views itself. The book, entitled The Catcher in the Rye, would propel a man named Jerome David Salinger to fame as one of the most famous authors of the twentieth century. This same man, not ten years after the publication and while still in the peak of his career, would depart from this society- theRead MoreAmerican Literature And Ways They Cultivate Their Own Methods Of Survival Within Their Societies1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith his own male identity, as well as establish his role in society and find purpose as an adult. J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Catcher in the Rye follows anti-hero Holden Caulfield through a seemingly innocuous trip in New York City. Throughout his journey, Holden tries desperately to interact with others but often finds himself alienated; in this way, Salinger portrays him more as an outsider, always staring with his nose pressed up against the glass, as opposed to a rebel actively revolting againstRead More Mysterious ways of J.D. Salinger Essay1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;J.D. Salinger could be considered one of the greatest, and most contrevertional authors of our time. We only know limited things about him and his work. He has been pushed off into the woods due to betrayal by his loved ones, and people close to him. Negative criticism of his work has also contributed to making him leave. Not to mention the biggest factor which made him want to be left alone, phoniness. These are the reasons that I believe why he wants to be left aloneRead MoreCatc her in the Rye4413 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesThe Catcher in the Rye Ã¢â¬Å"Is The Catcher in the Rye, as a work of literature still relevant for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth?Ã¢â¬ Name: Sara Sigurdson Course: English A1 Supervisor: Mr. Peter Steadman Word count: 3851 Candidate number: 00136022 Table of Contents Content Page Number Abstract 3 Introduction 4 The Actual Catcher in the Rye 4 The Sexual Matter 5 The Caulfield Family 6 Narrator and Protagonist 8 Role Model 9 Mr. Antolini 10 Targeted Audience 10 Guidance 12 Read MoreSummary Of Salinger s The Catcher Rye And Franny And Zooey 1966 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSpecifically, J.D. Salinger. He is a well-known author who has wrote many influential books such as The Catcher in the Rye and Franny and Zooey. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, education, significant people, major influences,and historical events have all had an impact on how he became the face of a literary movement as well as his contributions to the art of American Literature. Jerome David Salinger was born on January 1, 1919 in New York CIty. His mother, Mariam Salinger, and father, Sol Salinger, also had anotherRead MoreThe Modernist Movement And Its Influence On Art1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe post-modern movement was that there was no absolute truth.Ã Postmodernists believed that truth is an illusion misused by people to gain power over other people.Ã The postmodern movement is identified with deconstruction and cultural criticism.Ã Cultural criticism questions the notions of high and low cultures and tends to treat all works of art as equally legitimate cultural expressions.Ã Deconstruction questions the notion of a single,Ã unified meaning in a literary work.Ã The deconstructionists
The Sandwich Factory By Jason Kennedy The main theme of the short story The Sandwich Factory is the mechanization of human beings. The plot takes place in 1994 at a sandwich factory and we meet the narrator who works there. Through him we get the impression that the employees are no longer considered humans or individuals, but just one of many. The factory threatens to turn human beings into machines by thwarting the development of their emotions and imaginations and in the end of the story the narrator realizes that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be a part of the factory. The narrator in this short story is a 1 st person narrator who restricts his own view to the factory. It is important to remember that we hear his thoughts and his opinion, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This monotonous type of work is sure to affect a person at some point, for example Dot, who is a contrast to the narrator. Dot has been at the factory long enough to have lost a great part of her identity and human qualities. She has become a victim of t he factory and this assertion is based on the fact that she involves in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s life when she tries to be a matchmaker because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why the narrator is not acting like the other workers. Being denied the right to have human needs is sure to drive a person crazy at some point. The mad kid is a perfect example of the human mechanization at the factory. Ã¢â¬Å"I worked at a sandwich factory where a mad kid worked. 1 Lines 93-96. Side 1 af 3 Studieportalen.dk He would leer through a hatch and wave a knife at me.Ã¢â¬ 2 Madman emphasizes the madness at the factory and he has become a Ã¢â¬ËproductÃ¢â¬â¢ of it. The managers of the factory donÃ¢â¬â¢t respect the workers and it seems like they treat them like robots that work monotonously by the conveyor belt. Ã¢â¬Å"Locked doors were a feature of the sandwich factory. The managers would lock everyone in if we were behind schedule or there was a larger order than usual.Ã¢â¬ 3 The employees have nothing to say and it seems like they are being treated like slaves. The managers also divide the workers in groups and mark them as the Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ ones and the Ã¢â¬Ëpoor Ã¢â¬Ëones and it emphasizes that the workers areShow MoreRelatedSandwich Factory1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Sandwich Factory Factories turn human beings into machines. This is the perspective of the narrator in the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Sandwich FactoryÃ¢â¬ by Jason Kennedy. When mechanization is utilized to increase efficiency, factory employees become monotone working machines and individuals become just one of many - a crowd of insignificant people. This assignment will begin with an analysis and interpretation of the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Sandwich FactoryÃ¢â¬ by Jason Kennedy. To put the story into perspectiveRead MoreMacro Economics Practice Exam2085 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesQuestion 1 (Essay Worth 15 points) Exchange Rates | Year | U.S. Dollar | South Korean Won | Malaysian Ringgits | Indonesian Rupiahs | 2008 | 1 | 9,046 | 3.49 | 9,022 | 2009 | 1 | 9,046 | 3.78 | 9,087 | 2010 | 1 | 8,995 | 3.65 | 9,144 | a. Given the change in the value of the dollar between 2008 and 2009, as indicated in the table above, describe the effects this will have on United States tourism in each of these countries. b. Explain what impact the change in the valueRead MoreAnimal Cruelty And Its Effects On Society2121 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages For centuries, philosophers have debated the existence (or non-existence) of moral obligations to non-human animals. In this essay, I will draw upon the work of Kant, Machan, Norcross, and Singer to argue that animals do, in fact, deserve moral consideration. I will then explain why these obligations should lead consumers (whose circumstances deem the consumption of animal products unnecessary) to abstain from the purchase of products that cause harm to animals. These products include, but are notRead More122155 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageswas prepared throughout the day. Every Pret shop since has followed this model. The team members serving on the tills at lunchtime will have been making sandwiches in the kitchen that morning. The company rejected the idea of a huge centralized sandwich factory even though it could significantly reduce costs. PrÃ ªt also own and manage all their shops directly so that they can ensure consistently high standards in all their shops. Ã¢â¬ËWe are determined never to forget that our hard-working people make allRead MoreAn Ethnographic Study of a Subway Resturant2668 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesrecent years. The effects of globalisation and the evolution of the most developed economies are difficult to separate and a few authors believe the effects of multinational enterprise to be a defining feature of globalisation (Strange, 1986). In this essay, I am going to deliver a wider understanding of globalisation through the study of a fast food restaurant, subway to be precise. I am focusing on a branch of the restaurant in Bradford, paying attention to the sorts of customers who patronise it asRead MoreThe Broken Child From A Broken American Dream2186 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesfamily struggling to find the American Dream but destroys the family in the process. Yunior the main character of the short story collection has a struggle growing up with the on and off relationship with his father and the lifestyle of poverty. This essay demonstrates that Junot DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s short story collection Ã¢â¬Å"DrownÃ¢â¬ highlights how an unhealthy father-son relationship and poverty can have a detrimental effect on a young boy s development and transition into manhood. It speaks to how YuniorÃ¢â¬â¢s life changesRead MoreConvenience Food : Fast Food And Junk Food Essay2071 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesConvenience Food Research Essay Roug h Draft Convenience food includes fast food and junk food. This food is very convenient for people s lives, but it is not really convenient for people s health. Why people should avoid these convenience foods? 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Functional coherence is achieved through the first person singular or plural point of view, or non-personal third person point of view. Topical coherence depends on the particular field of knowledge where the object of the essay is included. Definitions are specific forms of analytic expositions
To: General Manager From: Consultant Date: January 30, 2012 Subject: PCL Control Sustainability Introduction PCL is a European consumer electronics and healthcare company that has recently entered China. They have a wide variety of televisions, DVD players, PC monitors, audio products and PC peripherals. PCL is able to compete within the consumer electronics market as they have low prices and a large network of distributors. PCL uses innovation to stay ahead of competitors and keep up with the latest technologies. PCL is currently in the growth stage and they need to maintain continuity. PCL organizational objective is to implement controls without having a detrimental effects on relationships with chain retailers and dealers. PCL also needs to ensure they do not loose prominent shelf space within the retail stores. PCL needs to minimize the amount of NFF returns. Key Problems Issue one two three Challenge 1: Sales Team PCLÃ¢â¬â¢s sales team was under immense pressure from the Dealers to meet sales targets, which was set at 132% of previous yearÃ¢â¬â¢s sales. This was concerning to the sales team in that the prescribed expectations outpaced actual market growth, causing a disconnect in communicating the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and providing the correct incentives to reach those goals. While results controls aim to enhance performance by tying rewards directly to the accomplishment of the desired results, problems may arise when the targets are perceived to be unattainable. PCLÃ¢â¬â¢s sales team resorted to aggressive sales techniques at the expense of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s greater goal of minimizing unnecessary returns and exchanges of demo sets and slow-moving goods. Results Controls The sales targets for the sales team act as results controls as well. However, these targets are not considered tight because they are not communicated and internalized effectively. The sales team feels as though the goals are not reasonable since the sales targets are increasing at a rate much greater than the market growth rate. Therefore, it can be concluded that the sales team has had little input in setting these targets, causing low levels of internalization and motivation. PCL should carefully analyze market growth and PCL sales over time as well as allow the Sales Team to participate in setting realistic sales targets so that the Sales Team does not feel pressured and in turn, does not relay this pressure to the dealers. Challenge 2: ASC The third issue is the lack of motivation for the after sales service team to regularly monitor the third-party ASCs. As a result, the ASCs do not inspect returned sets carefully and even go as far as to fake inspection records. This fraudulent behaviour results in a large number of NFFs which are an unnecessary drain on PCLÃ¢â¬â¢s profits. Thus far, the after sales service team has not caught or punished the ASCs for incompliant behaviour. The after sales service teamÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of motivation to actively monitor and punish the ASCs stems from the fact that they report to the general manager of PCL as opposed to the TV division manager. Because the after sales service teamÃ¢â¬â¢s performance rewards or punishments are not directly tied to the success of the TV division, the team has no incentive to ensure ASC compliance. Results Controls Implementing results controls at PCL is feasible because the organization can determine what results are desired, the employees have influence over the results, and the results can be measured. Results controls that PCL has implemented include the following goals: the NFF rate is to be reduced to 20%, the TV return and exchange rate to be reduced to 3. 5%, and the total savings realized by PCL due to more efficient TV returns within six months to be at least US$1. 13 million. These are understandable objectives and what employees must do to achieve these objectives must be conveyed to them clearly and repetitively. In order for these results controls to be effective, PCL must ensure that the measurement of these objectives is accurate and not influenced by biased individuals. There should not be a significant time lag between the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and the measurement of the results to ensure that the employees are constantly kept motivated. Seeing as the objective of PCL is to minimize the losses associated with television returns, the aforementioned performance dimensions are tailored to meet this objective and are therefore, congruent. These results controls are also tight because they fulfill the requirement of specificity. They must also be effectively communicated to all entities which have influence in meeting these standards such as the ASCs and the after sales service team. The inclusion of these areas in which the organization desires compliant performance ensures that these controls are complete as well. Finally, there must be a direct link between the accomplishment of the results and the rewards or punishments that may be realized. In this case, quarterly bonuses will be provided to the ASCs who exhibit the highest level of compliant behaviour to incentivise these third party entities to thoroughly inspect the returned TV sets. This type of reward is also a group reward which will act as a cultural control, encouraging mutual monitoring among ASC employees. A negative incentive such as punishment policies and penalties for NFF returns to the PCL factory will also be implemented. The after sales service team must be provided with a direct incentive to effectively monitor the ASC personnel. Therefore, the service teamÃ¢â¬â¢s bonus should depend on the amount of goods returned to the factory and penalties should be received for NFFs. Aligning performance measures of the two groups with the PCLÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives will ensure higher levels of compliance. Behavioural Controls Return Process In regards to the return policy set in place for the return of merchandise, only products that are deemed functionally defective are accepted. These returns must be returned within 15 days of purchase. In the short run, these action constraints were very effective solutions to the high return rate, however these behavioural controls must be analyzed in terms of tightness and sustainability. The action constraints put into place by the second cross-functional team are congruent with the organizational objective of enforcing a stricter return policy. At this point, the current action control system has a clear definition of actions and is understandable by the salespeople and the ASC. However, the current control system is not sustainable because it lacks completeness Ã¢â¬â there is very little action tracking. There is no incentive for an individual in the ASC team to properly inspect returned goods if accountability is unassigned. In consequence, a possible solution is to have all parties sign off on the customer return record, as the respective merchandise makes its way to the repair warehouse. This would include signatures from the salesperson that accepted the return, his/her supervisor, the cross-functional inspection team, and the respective member of the ASC. This not only adds accountability to the individual employee, but also provides a record for the number of NFF returns. Finally, completeness of the action control system requires results reinforcement. As mentioned in the results section, positive and negative policies will be tied to the number of NFF returns accepted by ASC and the after-sales service team. Goods must come in original packing When salespeople working at chain retailers accept returns, it is important to ensure that the returns are made in a form that is resellable. PCLÃ¢â¬â¢s new controls stated that returned goods would be required to come in their original PCL packaging, with all the original accessories. This control is effective because it is congruent with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate goal of serving its customers in a way that will be cost-efficient. This behavioural control is under an umbrella which aims to be complete in that employees involved can have some impact in the areas in which the organization wishes to achieve some goal. In order to make this control sustainable, PCL should tighten action by introducing a written log sheet on which salespeople and another member of a cross-functional team, such as a supervisor, inspect the returned good and verify that it is in its original packaging. Such measures would ensure institutional memory is in place so that changes in personnel will not disrupt the control process. Increase labour charges for inspection returns As part of the new incentive and penalty scheme for ASCs, labour charges for inspection of returns would be increased. This results control will be effective because it is specific and measurable. In addition, this control aims to align this third-partyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals with PCLÃ¢â¬â¢s own goals in minimizing the cost of handling returns. By increasing labour inspection charges, PCL will be effectively transferring some of the responsibility to the ASCs to encourage the ASCs to critically assess each return that is shipped to them. To properly enforce this objective, PCL should draft these specific terms on paper to increase the controlÃ¢â¬â¢s specificity. Issue Controls Other Recommendations Sales People Must Visit Dealers: The field salespeople are required to visit top dealers on a weekly basis in order to gain feedback and work out follow-up actions to help solve any problems the dealers may have. This is done on a rotation plan, as to help monitor the salespeople. This separation of duties allows PCL to ensure salespeople are not getting to friendly with dealers and also to ensure all problems are being solved immediately. PCL should continue to execute this control, as it helps monitor the quality and sales people to ensure they are doing a proper job. As a suggestion PCL could do this on a monthly basis or bi-monthly basis, as every week is too often. This would still allow PCL to monitor quality among salespeople, but would not be a large cost to the company. Project Team Meetings: Every two weeks the project team is required to meet to review the controls that are in place and to ensure they are doing their jobs properly. If anything is not working, or if a problem has come up, the project team will work together right away to solve the issue. This is a control in itself to help ensure the controls are all working. PCL should continue to follow through with this, as it is helping the company. In the future when another problem, as big as the problem of a large amount of NFF returns arises, PCL should make another project team to come up with a solution. By choosing team members who have a wide array or knowledge across the company, PCL is giving itself the best opportunity to fix the problem.
Question: Describe three three similar Diseases Disuss why are they Similar and how they are differentially Diagnosed. Answer: Introduction The paper deals with the differential diagnosis of three similar diseases to HIV including AIDS, Syphilis and Systemic lupus erythromatoses (SLE). Differential diagnosis refers to the process of distinguishing between different diseases that manifest as similar symptoms. Similar disease symptoms HIV is caused by human immunodeficiency virus that suppresses immune system. It is spread by unprotected sex and the later stage of HIV is known as Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is infection and AIDS is syndrome. On the contrary, syphilis is the bacterial infection, which is also spread through sexual contact. Both HIV and syphilis are transmitted by childbirth, anal and vaginal sex. Unlike HIV, syphilis is curable and can be treated with antibiotics (Sea et al. 2015). SLE is a representative of autoimmune disease and is initiated by virus. Both HIV and SLE is caused by retroviruses (Kao et al. 2014). The early symptoms of HIV are flu like symptoms, fever, sores and skin rash and are followed by many years where there are no symptoms. Symptoms of AIDS are similar to damaged immune system caused by infection and are manifested after severe infection from HIV (ElKalmi et al., 2015). Primary syphilis symptoms also manifest as sores around mouth, genitals and rectum. Secondary syphilis symptoms include severe skin rash and sores. However, there are no flu like symptoms. Both HIV and syphilis can infect anywhere on the body (Sea et al. 2015). The similarity between HIV and SLE comes from symptoms including abnormalities in T cell, i.e, CD4? and CD8? T cell dysfunction. Both the diseases lead to changes in the cytokines and chemokines and polyclonal B cell activation. Skin rashes and ulcers in mouth are also common in SLE like HIV (Kao et al. 2014). In some cases the symptoms of syphilis mimics SLE. These symptoms make the disease appear similar and the diagnosis tricky. Diagnosis HIV can be diagnosed by HIV tests involving blood tests and collection of swab of sores looking for antibodies and viral proteins. A patient with HIV decreases the normal CD4 count 500-1,200.During AIDS, these count drops to 200 (ElKalmi et al., 2015). However, the diagnosis of syphilis also involves swabbing an open sores and presence of bacteria will rule out HIV. HIV is diagnosed within days of transmission. AIDS is diagnosed only in later stage of infection. Whereas, syphilis can be diagnosed after 10-90 days of transmission (Pathela et al. 2015). On the other hand, SLE is diagnosed by blood tests, urinalysis, chest X ray, antibody tests and blood test. SLE can be ruled out by presence of butterfly rash, physical exam involving loss of hair, mucous membrane ulcer and arthritis (Kao et al. 2014). References ElKalmi, R.M., Al-Shami, A.K., Alkoudmani, R.M., Al-Syed, T., Al-Lela, O.Q.B. and Patel, I., 2015. Knowledge, Attitudes and Risk Perceptions towards Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Among Health Sciences Students in a Public University, Malaysia.Nursing,18, pp.7-6. Kao, J.K., Fu, C.H., Lee, M.S., Shieh, J.J. and Yang, S.C., 2014. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Misdiagnosed as HIV Infection in a Teenager: A Case Report.The Changhua Journal of Medicine,12(2), pp.77-81. Pathela, P., Braunstein, S.L., Blank, S., Shepard, C. and Schillinger, J.A., 2015. The high risk of an HIV diagnosis following a diagnosis of syphilis: a population-level analysis of New York City men.Clinical Infectious Diseases,61(2), pp.281-287. Sea, A.C., Zhang, X.H., Li, T., Zheng, H.P., Yang, B., Yang, L.G., Salazar, J.C., Cohen, M.S., Moody, M.A., Radolf, J.D. and Tucker, J.D., 2015. A systematic review of syphilis serological treatment outcomes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons: rethinking the significance of serological non-responsiveness and the serofast state after therapy.BMC infectious diseases,15(1), p.479.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Philippine Revolution Essay Problem : If the Katipunan had prevailed, do you think Aguinaldo could have made it to the top leadership? Why? Basic Facts : Andres Bonifacio founded the KKK or Katipunan Andres Bonifacio DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have formal education Andres Bonifacio And Emilio Aguinaldo refused to cooperate and aid each other in the battle. Emilio Aguinaldo has successes in the battlefields Participation in the election primarily came from Cavitenos. The other provinces in revolt, such as Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, and Batangas, were not participants. Emilio Aguinaldo is the one responsible for Andres Bonifacio arrest responsible and execution on May 10, 1897 Cause of the problem The issue of leadership was debated. The Magdiwang faction, led by Bonifacios uncle Mariano Alvarez, recognized Bonifacio as supreme leader, being the founder. The Magdalo faction, led by Emilios cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, agitated for Emilio Aguinaldo to be the organizations head because of his successes in the battlefield. Bonifacio meanwhile had had a succession of defeats. Effect of the problem In order to unite the Katipunan in Cavite, the Magdiwang through Artemio Ricarte and Pio Del Pilar invited Bonifacio, who was fighting in Morong (present-day Rizal) province, to come to Cavite, Aguinaldos home ground. On December 31, an assembly was convened in Imus to settle the leadership issue once and for all. The Magdalo insisted on the establishment of revolutionary government to replace the Katipunan and continue the struggle. On the other hand, the Magdiwang favored the Katipunans retention, arguing that it was already a government in itself. We will write a custom essay sample on Philippine Revolution specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Philippine Revolution specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Philippine Revolution specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The assembly dispersed without a consensus. On March 22, 1897, another meeting was held in Tejeros. It called for the election of officers for the revolutionary government. Bonifacio chaired the election. This convention ended in further conflict and led to the revolutions demise. Bonifacio called for the election results to be respected. When the voting ended, Bonifacio had lost and the leadership turnover to Aguinaldo, who was away fighting in Pasong Santol. Instead, he was elected to director of the interior but his qualifications were questioned by a Magdalo, Daniel Tirona. Bonifacio felt insulted and drew his pistol to shoot Tirona had not Artemio Ricarte intervened. Bonifacio declared the election null and void and stomped out in anger. Aguinaldo took his oath of office as president the next day in Santa Cruz de Malabon (present-day Tanza) in Cavite, as did the rest of the officers, except for Andres Bonifacio. In Naic, Bonifacio and his officers created the Naic Military Agreement, establishing a rival government to Aguinaldos. It rejected the election at Tejeros and restored Bonifacio as the leader of the revolution. When Aguinaldo learned of the document, he ordered the arrest of Bonifacio and his soldiers. Colonel Agapito Benzon chanced upon Bonifacio in Limbon. In the subsequent battle, Bonifacio, and his brother Procopio were wounded, while their brother Crispulo was killed. They were taken to Naic to stand trial. The Consejo de Guerra (War Council) sentenced Andres, and Procopio Bonifacio to death on May 10, 1897 for committing sedition and treason.  Aguinaldo commuted the punishment to deportation, but withdrew his decision following pressure from Pio Del Pilar and other officers of the revolution. On May 10, Colonel Lazaro Macapagal, upon orders from General Mariano Noriel, executed the Bonifacio brothers at the foothills of Mount Buntis,a small mountain near Maragondon. Andres Bonifacio, and his brother were buried in a shallow grave marked only with twigs. Conclusion In my opinion, it was really difficult to choose from Aguinaldo and Bonifacio. But the fact that Bonifacio is the one who founded the Katipunan must have been a considerably enough rationale for him to remain as the leader. It was just because the circle or group of Aguinaldo and members of his class enjoyed privilege status even before the revolution. They would not allow a victorious president Bonifacio ordering land and wealth distribution as his first decree. ) Had Bonifacio been able to get back to Manila he could have charged Aguinaldo and other Caviteno officers with treason and Philippine history would have taken a very different track. Bonifacio was not allowed to get out of Cavite. He was summarily tried and promptly executed with his brother Procorpio Bonifacio at a mountain in Maragondon, Cavite for the supposed crime of treason. CASE STUDY 2 Topic : The Philippine Revolution Problem : What was the greatest tragedy of the Philippine Revolution? Basic Facts : Jose Rizal is considered the National Hero Jose Rizal is the martyr of the Philippine Revolution As a political figure, Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan, led by Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo. Jose RizalÃ¢â¬â¢s famous works, (el filibusterismo and noli me tangere) angered both the Spaniards and the hispanicized Filipinos due to their insulting symbolism. In 1896 Rizal was in prison in Fort Santiago Rizal was sentenced to death Cause of the problem Rizal was arrested en route, imprisoned in Barcelona, and sent back to Manila to stand trial. He was implicated in the revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan and was to be tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy. Effect of the problem Rizal was convicted on all three charges and sentenced to death. He was executed by a firing squad. Conclusion For me, the death of Jose Rizal was the greatest tragedy of the philippine revolution. He influenced most of our revolutionary leaders through his writings and example although other people believe that he should only be declared a hero not Ã¢â¬Å"The national hero. Ã¢â¬ Most people believed that RizalÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest legacy is his love for his country as embodied in his writings and the actions that he took. For me personally, Jose RizalÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest legacy was that he lived a full and meaningful life. It did not matter that he lived for only 34 years. He accomplished so much in such a short period of time because he had a vision in his mind and a mission in his heart. The intensity of such mission and vision translated into action that enabled him not to waste time in any trivial matters but rather devote all of his time to the accomplishment of the mission and vision that he believed was given to him. He is the man who changed the course of the Philippine history. CASE STUDY 3 Topic : The American involvement in the Philippine struggle for freedom Problem : Sensing the American political designs in the Philippines, how did Aguinaldo counteract such aggression? Basic Facts : Aguinaldo was unhappy that the United States would not commit to paper a statement of support for Philippine independence. Treaty of Paris, at the end of the Spanish-American War, transferred control of the Philippines to the United States. Philippine Government which, on June 2, 1899, proclaimed a Declaration of War against the United States. Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in 1901 and the U. S. government declared the conflict officially over in 1902. The Philippine-American War resulted in massive casualties. Cause of the problem Filipinos initially saw their relationship with the United States as that of two nations joined in a common struggle against Spain. As allies, Filipinos had provided the American forces with valuable intelligence and military support. However, the United States later distanced itself from the interests of the Filipino insurgents. Effect of the problem The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred on June 12, 1898, when Filipino revolutionary forces under Aguinaldo (later to become the Philippines first Republican President) proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain after the latter was defeated at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. The declaration, however, was not recognized by the United States or Spain, as the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost. Tensions between the Philippine and the American governments existed because of the conflicting movements for independence and colonization, aggravated by the feelings of betrayal on the part of Aguinaldo. The Malolos Congress declared war on the United States on June 2, 1899, with Pedro Paterno, President of Congress, issuing a Proclamation of War. 28] The Philippine-American war ensued between 1899 and 1902 Conclusion The Philippine-american war rose because the filipinos had become suspicious of the true motives of the United States in going to the Philippines. In fact, they were prevented by the Americans from entering Manila after its fall. Their suspicions were confirmed by the Treaty of Paris under which Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why Emilio Aguinaldo commanded his troops to fight the American troops. Aguinaldo wanted the Philippines to be a fully independent country.